This chapter presents the background of study, problems of the study, purpose of the study, significance of the study, scope and limitation, definition of the key term and organization of the study.
A. The Background of the study
English is derived from England, one would think. English is one of the foreign languages used around the world. Many people want to learn and master it because of its importance in the world. However, they sometimes find some difficulties and some of them surrender to learn it. Now, in all school there is English learning. So, the students get knowledge about writing, reading, listening and speaking. This skill is important to students.
Language is thought to have originated when early hominids first started cooperating, adapting earlier systems of communication based on expressive signs to include a theory of other minds and shared intentionality. Language may refer either to the specifically human capacity for acquiring and using complex systems of communication, or to a specific instance of such a system of complex communication. Yet another definition sees language as a system of communication that enables humans to cooperate. This definition stresses the social functions of language and the fact that humans use it to express themselves and to manipulate objects in their environment (Wikipedia: 2011)
As a teacher must know the students needed about vocabulary in junior high school. They need addition vocabulary. Because if students good vocabulary will be easy to study English in for skill. In reading, listening, writing and especially in speaking. Speaking is important to students in junior high school. The student’s good vocabulary will be easy to conversation in speaking.
So, the teacher must look for solution it. The teacher can used the community language learning (CLL) method to student’s achievement in speaking. This method is suitable for teaching speaking. Because this method is accord students condition in teaching speaking. Speaking is an interactive process of constructing meaning that involves producing and receiving and processing information. It is often spontaneous, open-ended, and evolving (Bailey et al, 2005:2).
Teaching speaking means teaching the students to use the language in real communication. The English teachers should teach them to produce the English speech sound and sound pattern. The students should be able to use words and sentences which are appropriate with the contexts (Cahyono, 2011:43). Teaching speaking is sometimes considered a simple process. Commercial language school around the world hire people with no training to teach conversation. Although speaking is totally natural, speaking in a language other than our own is anything but simple (Nunan, 2003:48)
The Community language learning (CLL) is the name of a method introduced and developed by Charles A. Curran and his associates. Curran was a specialist in counselling and professor of psychology at Loyola University in Chicago. It is no doubt that this method has been inspired by the application of psychological counselling techniques to learning, which is called Counselling – Learning. Community Language Learning represents the use of Counselling – Learning theory to teach foreign language. Here, the teacher as counsellor and the student as client. The teacher can help student, if student have problem about material or lesson.
If the term “counselling” is traced back, it refers to the idea that there is a relationship between a counsellor and a client(s). The counsellor gives advice, assistance and support to his /her client. Who have a problem(s). In Community Language Learning this kind of relationship is considered basic to learning a foreign language. The teacher functions as the counsellor and the learners as his / her client. Since CLL sees a language learners as the whole person, including his/her psychological aspects such as emotion an felling, CLL techniques or also described as humanistic techniques.
The concepts of “community” has been used in this method because when such relationships mentioned above is applied specifically to groups with the task of learning a second language, a very special kind of community involvement result language learners and their language teachers build and intense atmosphere of warmth. This kind of security and support from one another in the group is ready typical in this method and almost the exact apposite of the atmosphere in the schooling setting. The language learners never feel isolated and learn because everybody belongs to the grow and everybody sits in a community and senses positive regard of everyone else Curran, 1976:1). CLL represent an attempt to put the insights from psychology to work in the teaching and learning of foreign language. The method emphasizes on “community” learning, as opposed to individual learning as some other traditional teaching does (Setiyadi, 2006:96)
CLL is called ‘Community Language Learning’ because the learning activities take place in groups: large, small, or in pairs and triad. In the CLL class there are no pattern – practise drills, which are inherently teacher – cantered. Instead, the CLL discipline consists of two parts: an experience in language learning and a period of reflection on the experience. CLL is at one current theories which stress experience as the basic discipline in which language learning occurs, but the CLL discipline of experience is tempered by the teacher in three ways. First of all, the experience is ‘framed’ by a time – limit, so the students can accept it without anxiety. A period of free conversation with the participation of the teacher may be designed to last ten minutes, with groups of about ten students. Any other kind of English – Learning activity, such as groups reading, pronunciation, or translation, can be included in the scope of the CLL experience. Even pattern – practice drilling may be consigned to leaders of small groups, when it takes on the quality of a supportive (Marie:2011)
The purpose of the Community Language Learning (CLL) in teaching speaking is it can help the teacher to make his lesson interesting, compact’s students, concentration, addition vocabulary, expression themselves and help student if have problems and useful. The teacher as counselor and student as client. Using these way, the teacher can motivate his students and get them involved in the teaching learning process.
Finally, according to the background mentioned above the writer focusses her effectiveness of the Community Language Learning (CLL) in teaching speaking of Class VIII MTs Al-Huda Bandung Tulungagung.
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