In this chapter presented the introduction of research. It covered background of the research, formulation of the problems, objective of the research, the significant of the research, the hypothesis of the research, the scope and limitation of the research, and definition of key terms.
A. Background of the Research
In this present it is important to be able to speak and understand English language. English has made very big influence in the parts of human life. Learning English is not only important to get education but also to get new technology, science and knowledge. It is spoken in almost every nation in the world. In our world, it is known as universal language. Anywhere we go in the world, we will find people who speak English. And majority of the world of entertainment use English too.
“There are two kind of ways in which people establish communication in language. They are oral and written. Oral and written occur within one social and work together to form meanings within that situation.”(Burns, 1997:)
According to Brown (2000:335) “Written communication is result of employing strategy to manage the composing process, which is one of gradually developing a text. Written product is often the result of thinking, drafting, and revising procedure that require specialized skills, skills that not every speaker develops naturally.”
When people communicate by written, they are alone and they indirectly contact with other people to whom they are writing. In written communication the writer often feels under an obligation to achieve accuracy and precision, for example in writing a letter, poem, short message, service, etc.
“Communication by oral can be described as producing sound to communicate with other and the others side produce the sound to give response back to understand each other what they want to express with a word.”(Hornby, 1985:35).
In oral communicating, people usually interact directly with other. The language people produced is spontaneous and relatively unplanned. And as a consequence we tend to use informal everyday language that does not always conform to standard grammar.
From that phenomenon, we know that people used more oral communication as a mean of communication among individuals than written.
According to Harmer (1990:21) “There are two paradigms of English, namely English as science and English as a means of communication.” The first paradigm is English as science. English must be known by the people who want to make English as science. Therefore, they must master all items of English. In second paradigm is English as means of communication. English become instruments in communication. People can say something to express what they want to communicate each other. That is, how the people who are communicating with them can understand what they said and they understood what other people said without confusion between them. They can interact with others by producing any sounds without thinking English itself deeply.
In English as science, speaking is not only producing sound to send message to other, and enough if who are communicating with them understand what they want. Speaking skill as a science has to be based on standard criteria level of oral test.
English is one of language that is recognized in Indonesia. Indonesians consider English as the second language for them. Consequently, English is taught at the school from elementary level to high educational level. It is intended for the development of science, technology, art, culture and also the development of nation relationship.
Although English is taught at the school from elementary level to high educational level but English is not mastered maximally by English learner. It is because in learning English, learners have to master some skills. The skills are reading, writing, listening and speaking. One of skill that is not mastered by more English learners is speaking skill. In first paradigm above, in speaking, it is not only producing the sound and enough if who are communicating with them understand what they want, but in speaking has to be based on standard criteria level of oral test. Because of that, speaking skill is not mastered well by the learners of English.
In learning English, speaking is considered as one of the difficult skill. Many students do not have confidence to produce their words. They need some stimulation from the teacher to produce their words and it is impossible if the teacher have to guide the students one by one. It is not effective in teaching and learning process. This problem is experienced by the seventh grade students of MTs A-Huda Bandung. They feel difficult to express their idea, though they have any ideas that hidden in their thought.
Based on the reason above, knowing the student’s speaking ability is very important. In order to find out which the most difficult in all aspects of speaking, the teacher must know the best method and the best technique in solving the student’s difficulty in speaking. In teaching speaking skill, the teacher has to use the appropriate technique.
In English for Young Learners (EYL) there are some alternative methods and techniques to teach speaking. They are useful and effective to improve the speaking ability of the students. One of the alternative techniques to teach speaking is guided dialogue activity. The teacher can apply this technique to improve the student’s achievement in speaking ability. Guided dialogue activity is a combination of two techniques. They are guided activity and dialogue. Teacher and students will cooperate in classroom activity by using this technique. Students will converse a topic in pairs and the teacher as a classroom guide person. It means that the teacher holds the classroom situation in order to keep active and reach the topic target by preparing guided questions. It can help the students to show their ideas or thoughts.
There are three advantages, if the teacher uses this technique. Firstly, guided dialogue activity can direct the students. It means that the teacher help students to keep on the topic, the teacher will prepare guided questions to be conversed by students. The students ask and answer each other in pairs. In this situation, the teacher will guide the student in order to keep on the target topic and overcome the overlapping by practicing the guided questions. The second advantage is to stimulate. It means that the teacher give stimulation to the students in order to make classroom situation more active. The students will be stimulated using guided questions and they can express their original thought actively. Finally it is to motivate. It means that the teacher can raise the student’s atmosphere if the process of learning is slow down. The students will not slow down in process of learning because in their conversation have been prepared some guided questions. They will not have unlimited thought and will be more motivated to show their original thoughts.
In this case, the researcher wants to try using guided dialogue activity as the technique in teaching speaking, whether this technique is effective or not in teaching speaking. From this description, the researcher searches how far the effectiveness of using guided dialogue activity toward student’s achievement at seventh grade students of MTs Al-Huda Bandung.
Untuk mendapatkan file lengkap dalam bentuk MS-Word Mulai BAB 1 s.d. DAFTAR PUSTAKA, (bukan pdf) silahkan klik Cara Mendapatkan File atau klik disini